Wednesday, November 30, 2011

1950-74 Part 3

Last Part is here! Enjoy!

Trade Publications in the 60s and 70s

One specific type of publication boomed during the 60s that had not been thought of before: teen magazines. A number of magazines were launched during this time such as Honey in 1961, Jackie in 1964, Petticoat in 1966, and 19 in 1968. They all used illustration in their publication because it was cheaper. The customer profile was a young woman or teenager for whom couture and expensive designer wear were an anachronism. The role of these magazines was to inspire, rather than dictate.

Other trade publications such as L'Officiel de la mode et du couture, International Textiles, and Sir incorporated illustrations into their magazines and did an exceptional job of hiring the best of the best of illustrators like Gruau, Constance Wilbaut, and Tod Draz (featured below). Women's Wear Daily, WWD, was redone in 1960 by John Fairchild. He employed a team of illustrators to capture the zeitgeist, providing extremely recent and accurate information for the American rag trade. This publication was described as an "art factory" an the illustrators were given freedom to express the look and feel of the times,producing some of the best and most exciting illustrations of the period.

Rene Gruau, Original Illustration for International Textiles, April 1951.

Rene Gruau, Original Illustration for International Textiles, April 1951.

Rene Gruau, Original Illustration for cover of International Textiles, May 1962.

Rene Gruau, Blazer Jackets, Sir, 1963.

Rene Gruau, Blazer Jackets, Sir, 1963.

Rene Gruau, Original Illustration for cover of International Textiles, 1967.

Tod Draz, Original Illustration for American Vogue, August 1950.

Antonio Lopez

This Puerto-Rican-born man trained at the New York's Fashion Institute of Technology and then began a career at WWD. His "chameleon-like" ability to alter his style depending on the moment allowed his illustrations to appear in high-fashion publications throughout the 60s and 70s, even when these publications preferred photographs. From pop art influences of the 60s, to the hippie styles, to nostalgic art-deco of the early 70s. Until his death, his work increasingly showed energetic and intense graphic work that main unique to this day in the illustration industry and he was the only illustrator to frequent the pages of Vogue during this time. Below are some examples of his work!

Antonio Lopez, Original Illustration of summer sportswear for British Vogue, April 1968.

Antonio Lopez, "Back to Nature" Original Drawing for British Vogue, July 1970.

Antonio Lopez, "St. Tropez" Original Drawing for French Vogue, 1970.

Antonio Lopez, "Fur for Glamour" Original Illustration for British Vogue, OCtober 1972.

Antonio Lopez, "Capezio". Original Illustration 1972.

Next time, 1975 and Beyond will be covered!

1950-74 Part 2

Part 2 is here!

Andy Warhol

No other illustrator captured more of the teenage fashions during this time than Andy Warhol. He used a lot of bright colors, which was new for illustrators. He felt that the colors were just as important as the illustration. in 1956 alone, Warhol earned over $100,000 for his illustration work. Below are a few illustrations that grabbed the attention of many.

Andy Warhol, Woman with flowers and plants, 1960.

Andy Warhol, Woman and car, 1959.

Andy Warhol, Six handbags in a frame, 1958.

Andy Warhol, Stamped Shoes, 1959.

Andy Warhol, Man in Black, 1960.

Continuing Demise of Illustration

During the 60s, the illustration industry continued to decrease in magazine publications. Covers of illustrations were only occasionally featured, and photography continued to increase in preference and quality. Editorial illustrators included Rene Bouche, Alfredo Bouret, Tod Draz, Tom Keogh, Eric Stamp, John Ward, and Audrey Lewis. The deaths of Eric and Bouche marked the end of the 'old school' illustrators, with the exception of Rene Gruau who continued to make a mark on fashion illustration with his bold outlined drawings and dynamic style, below seen in a Dior perfume campaign. In general, Illustration was becoming used specifically for advertising, underwear, or accessory features. Around this time was when photographers and their muses became well known and a new type of celebrity such as David Bailey, Jean Shrimpton, Twiggy, and Justin de Villeneuve. Below are examples of illustrators works during this period.

Rene Gruau, Original Illustration for advertisement for Dior Perfume, 1967.

Rene Gruau, Advertisement for Jaeger, 1954.

Rene Bouche, Advertisement for Pringle, The Queen, June 1953.

Eric Stemp, Raincoats and Tweeds for Simpson's Catalogue, 1971.

End of Part 2!

1950-74 Part 1

Hi Everyone!

Once again, I decided to break this section into three different parts for reading ease. Let's get down to business.

From Dior to YSL

Until his death in 1957, Christian Dior dominated the couture scene and his house actually became the largest in Paris with having over 1000 workers. After designing his "New Look", he designed a series of collections inspired by architectural and geometric shapes that were taken over by Yves Saint Laurent, Dior's assistant. After a few years of being the head of Dior house, Laurent decided to set up his own house called Yves Saint Laurent (YSL). He designed classics such as the trench coat, the safari suit, and le smoking, an evening trouser for women that was based off of a man's tuxedo. Laurent described his clothes as a, "form of protest" and earned the title of "the first modern couturier" by John Fairchild from Women's Wear Daily, WWD. However successful Dior and YSL's designs were, the number of couture houses fell dramatically and hits mall time low during this time. YSL, Courreges, Dior, and Givenchy all began to design ready-to-wear in cheaper ranges and really began to rely on their perfumes, hosiery, cosmetics, and accessories to keep them in business. Instead of the couture, the branding of these products became the foundation of the industry. Below are pictures to represent both Dior and YSL's designs during this time period.

Rene Gruau, Dress by Dior, L'Officiel de la couture et de la mode de Paris, March 1953.

Photograph of Dior's A-line suit, February 1955.

Rene Gruau, Dior's A-line suit, British Vogue, March 1955. (middle image).

Constance Wilbaut, "Mondrian" dress by Yves Saint Laurent, International Textiles, 1965

Influences on Fashion

During this time, television became one of fashion's biggest conduits to consumers, mostly teenagers of the postwar years who developed a lifestyle that was not dictated by older generations. Newly developing pop music was a huge factor in the fashions of teens and bands such as the Beatles and others encouraged a more rebellious lifestyle. Music brought along this subculture of rebellion which intro ducted a new aesthetic in styles. Another influence on fashion was the mainstream introduction of psychedelic drugs that caused a swirling effect of colors on the mind that translated itself into the clothes worn by those participating.All of the sudden, teens were wearing vibrant swirling colors, beads, tie-dye, bell-bottom trousers, vintage clothes mixed with ethnic elements became the new uniform for the kids of that time. It was a melting pot of mod, hippie, rocker, and military that dictated the world of teenagers and created a trend that represented their feelings towards the government and the world in general.

End of Part 1! Part 2 coming soon!

Thursday, November 24, 2011

1925-49 Part 3

Part 3

Influence of Hollywood

Because stars of the time were getting so much publicity, they became the new fashion icons. Films that were being produced had to use clothes that were timeless because of the bigger gap between filming and the actual release of the film. It became very obvious that Parisian couture dated too fast and therefore the couturiers were replaced by in-house costume specialists like Adrian at Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer and Edith Head at Paramount.

British Couture

In addition to American couture, British couture was also on the rise during the interwar years. When Norman Hartnell was apppointed dressmaker to the British Royal family in 1938, he had no idea that he was creating a style that would take the country by storm. His designs for Queen Elizabeth were romantic and tailored, inspiring other designers like Victor Steibel, Edward Molyneux, Digby Morton, and Hardy Amies to do the same.

Problems in Paris

in 1940, Paris was being occupied by the Nazis and the couture industry was threatened. Lucien Lelong, President of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture, alone kept it alive, even with reduced numbers of both houses and help. Fabrics were extremely low in supply, which caused designers to do several things. Some, like Chanel and Schiaparelli, decided to go abroad and retire. Others continued to develop their careers with what they could. Designers such as Jacques Fath, Cristobal Balenciaga, Pierre Balmain, and Christian Dior would each contribute to the re-establishment of Parisian couture during the 50s.

Alexandre Delfau, Winter outfits by Balenciaga, Plaire, Vol II, 1945.

Bernard Blossac, Original Illustration of an evening gown by Jaques Fath, 1949.

Bernard Blossac, Original Illustration of an evening gown by Jacques Fath, 1949.

Dior's New Look

Christian Dior's New Look, produced in 1947, provided the revival of fashion through his use of long forgotten femininity. Dior previously worked for Robert Piguet and Lucien LeLong and created his own house in 1946.

The New Look consisted of lavish fabrics, intricate designs, and curvaceous silhouettes, which were in severe contrast to England's rationing of all things fashion related. Almost ironically however, was the fact that Dior's New Look was ultimately a throwback to decades earlier when fashion was about being lavish, expensive, obvious, and glamorous, which symbolized a more care-free and cheerful time. Below are illustrations by artists of Dior.

Christian Berard, "Bar" from Dior's New Look, 1947.

Photograph of "Bar", 1947. Just to contrast the difference in feeling between the illustration and photograph.

Dior's favorite Illustrator, Rene Gruau's Origional Illustration of Christian Dior for cover of L'Officiel, October 1948.

Rene Gruau, Ensemble by Christian Dior, Femina, IV, 1949.

1925-49 Part 2

Here is Part 2!

The Golden Age of Fashion Illustration

The 20s and 30s have often been referred to as the "Golden Age". Conde Nast invested in illustration very heavily within the pages of Vogue based on his admiration for Vogel's Gazette du bon ton. In fact, the cover of Vogue from 1910 until the second World War featured an illustration from a member of his team. His team then consisted of Helen Dryden, George Wolf Plank, Georges Lepape, and J.C. Leyendecker. During this time, Nast's team expanded. At this point, a lot of European artists began to move in on the scene such as Eduardo Benito, Charles Martin, Pierre Brissaud, Andre Marty, and Mario Simon. Although Nast was thrilled to have so many options, he did complain that, "the artists were chiefly interested in achieving amusing drawings and decorative effects...they were bored to death by anything resembling an obligation to report the spirit of contemporary fashion faithfully."

George Wolfe Plank, Cover of American Vogue, February 1927.

Georges Lepape, Cover design for French and British Vogue, 1938.

Benito, "Princess Lointaine" from a brochure advertising the Maison Fourrures Max, 1925.

Benito, "Scheherazade" from a brochure advertising the Maison Fourrures Max, 1925.

Illustration vs. Photography

Nast always valued illustrations over photography, as long as it possessed Vogue's intangible chic. However, his views were not echoed by American, Carl Erickson (Eric), and "arch rival" Count Rene Bouet-Williaumez. These man set new standards of realism in illustration during the 30s and both works were found on the cover of Nast's magazines during the interwar years. Starting with the 30s, photography grew in popularity and preference. The first color photograph that graced the cover of a publication in 1932, an image of a woman in a bathing suit by Edward Steichen. In 1936, Nast realized that photographic covers sold better, and that the future was photography, and illustrations were used primarily for the inside pages.

Willaumez, La Marquise de Paris in evening gown by Augustabernard, American Vogue, September 1933.

Willaumez, Woman in hat by Agnes, American Vogue, August 1935.

Eric, Cover of British Vogue, September 1936.

Eric, Advertisement for L.S. Ayres & Co. of Indianapolis, 1942.

The Rise of the U.S. Fashion Industry

When the Wall Street Crash of 1929 occured, the American fashion industry began to grow less dependent on Parisian couture and began to make strides in the garment manufacturers during the interwar years by improving large-scale production and by creating standardized sizing. Soon the ready-to-wear industry in America began to outshine any European country. Also setting the U.S. apart, American designers began to be promoted by big department stores such as Lord & Taylor and Bergdorf Goodman.

Cosmetics Illustration

The cosmetics Industry also boomed during the interwar years and illustrators began to emphasize the face and makeup.

Erte, Cover of Harper's Bazaar, May 1933.

Part 3 to come soon!

1925-49 Part 1

Hey Everyone! This chapter is extremely long, so I'm dividing it into 3 parts! Here's Part 1. Have a happy Thanksgiving!

This period, as Cecil Beaton said, was "sandwiched between two world wars, between Poiret's harem and Dior's New Look, two women dominated the field of haute couture-Schiaparelli and Chanel."

The Age of Schiaparelli & Chanel

Unfortunately, Paul Poiret's house had to close in 1929 due to financial difficulties and he was soon forced into poverty and forgotten for the time being. However, in his place rose other European designers who would soon rise to the top of the fashion world. Coco Chanel launched her "little black dress" in 1929 which was described by American Vogue as, "The Chanel Ford-the frock that all the world will wear." As well as couture, Chanel designed for the Parisian woman who desired easy-to-wear day clothes that were simple, yet had an air of understated luxury. Chanel designed what would still be stable pieces in the closets of women today. Below are 3 examples of Chanel's LBD.

Douglas Pollard's Black lace dress by Chanel in American Vogue, 1930.

Christian Berard, Chanel Designs, Vogue, July 1937.

Around this time, sportswear became essential in the fashion world. Designers such as Jean Patou, Lucien Lulong, Jane Regny, and Jeanne Lanvin designed clothes for the world of sports, yachting, sailing, skiing, tennis, etc. Below are illustrations for these designs.

George Barbier's "Winter: Lovers in the Snow" 1925.

Anonymous, Tennis dress by Patou, 1925.

Elsa Schoaparelli was Chanel's biggest rival. Her first design, a close-fitting black sweater with a white trompe l'oeil bow, was spotted by an American buyer, thus the start to her dazzling career had begun. Like the above mentioned designers, she sold sweaters and novelty sportswear items in her first store, Pour Le Sport in Paris. She began to play around with mundane items and turned them into high fashion such as lollipop buttons, padlock belt buckles, balloon shaped bags, and suits that resembled chests of drawers. Schiaparelli's designs included shapely waisted suits with squared, padded shoulders echoed her philosophy about fashion,"clothes should be architectural; that the body must never be forgotten and it must be used as a frame is used in building." Below is a portrait of Elsa Schiaparelli.

Francis Marshall for British Vogue, 1936.

Schiaparelli was associated with artists like Salvador Dali, Jean Cocteau, and Christian Berard.

Christian Berard, Schiaparelli Designs, Vogue, October 1938. Sorry it's so tiny!

Madaleine Vionnet

Madaleine Vionnet was another couturier who designed more architectural pieces. She actually was the inventor of the bias cut, which style replaced the tubular dresses that concealed the figure of the early 20s and dressing feminine became popular again. Hemlines dropped and emphasis on the waist became present. There was also an emphasis on the hips and shoulders. Below is an illustration of one of Vionnet's evening wraps.

Porter Woodruff, Evening wraps by Patou and Vionnet, American Vogue, 1929.

That's all for now! Part 2 will be posted shortly!

Tuesday, October 11, 2011


Hey Everyone!

The first section of the book discusses Fashion illustrations between the times of 1900 to 1924. Like the era, Illustration seemed to realize that the key to the future could mean to look back to the past. Instead of searching for new and modern fashions, clothing that expressed wealth and social standing was on trend. Women's close were made out of lace, frills, feathers, and other outlandish accessories and frills. Men's clothes were still very dependent on occupation, social standing, occasions, and the time of day. Ready-made clothing was available in department stores in major towns and cities, although many women still employed a dressmaker or they made their own clothes. Below is an Anonymous painting entitled, "Shopping" that was seen in Harrod's Catalogue in 1909.

Fashion Illustrations during this time were very stiffly posed with busy backgrounds and ornate arrangements. Illustrators who worked for high fashion magazines like American Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and The Queen in Britain often depicted clothes with extremely minute details, though there were a few exceptions, such as Charles Drivon's "Gibson Girl" was a fashion icon for many young women with the use of his "lifestyle illustrations". Below is an example!

The New Age of Art

Starting in the early 1900s photography became popular to use in magazines. As different forms of art began developing, other established creative activities had began to change and grow. For example, Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes production of Cleopatre featured costumes by Leon Bakst and sets that were filled with exotic and dazzling colors and nudity that was unexpectedly bold for the time. The world was quick to respond to the production. Pastel colors were replaced by brilliant hues that also combined silver and gold. Below is an costume design of Leon Bakst's that was worn in Scheherazade.

Paul Poiret

Paul Poiret was an extremely popular fashion designer of the prewear years and he really elevated fashion and art and made them significant during this time. He established his own couture house in 1903, a time in which art was changing and going in different directions that it had been previously. He, as well as most other designers at this time, decided to capitalize on the new fashions in theater and apply them to his couture house. He did eveningwear that reflected the oriental influence. Under tunics, harem trousers were worn with accessories such as feather and jewel encrusted turbans. A popular silhouette was a more tubular streamlined silhouette. Low V-necklines replaced the high collars and toque hats and more simple styled hats replaced lavishly trimmed picture hats.

Paul Iribe

Poiret brought in many fresh artists into his house seeking new ways to link fashion and art. He hired Paul Iribe to illustrate a promotional publication for him called, "Les Robes de Paul Poiret." Iribe illustrated some figures that were half profile or back view, which was new and innovative for the times. Below are some of Paul Iribe's work for Les Robes de Paul Poiret in 1908..

George Lepape

Poiret also comission George Lepape to illustrate his second publication, "Les Choses de Paul Iribe." in 1911. Lepape claimed that his wife was responsible for at least 4 of the designs in Les Choses. These illustrations were printed on high quality paper and used the "pochoir" method for printing. The process is Japanese-based and refers to the technique that requires creating a stencil for each layer of color; sometimes 30 stages were needed to achieve the freshness of the original illustration. Lepape did more than 100 illustrations for Vogue over the course of his life. Below are a few of George Lepape's designs for Les Choses de Paul Poiret.

Fashion Magazines

Other Fashion publications at the time were Modes et Manieres D'aujourd'hui, British Vogue, La Guirlande des Mois, Falbalas et Fanfreluches, Art, Gout, Beaute, Styl, and French Vogue. Gazette de Bon Ton was another publication that, like Poiret's, represented many young artists, couturiers, and publishers that collaborated to produce something unique. Lucien Vogel was the founder who was an art director, editor, and publisher who had an eye for innovative artists. In one issue, he collaborated with 7 majoy couture houses of the day such as Poiret, Cheruit, Doeuillet, Lanvin, Doucet, Redfern, and Worth. Gazette maintained the highest standards in content. Each edition contaianed around 10 pochoir color plates and several croquis (here meaning design sketches), which was unheard of at the time and caused it to be one of the most influential magazines ever produced. The publication ran from 1912-1914 and from 1920-1925 with 69 issues total. Below are some of my favorite illustrations that were found in Gazette during this time.

George Lepape, "Le Collier Nouveau" January 1914

Pierre Brissaud, "En Tenue de Parade" February 1914

Etienne Drian, "La Marseillaise" 1915

Etienne Drian, "Bouquet Tricolore" 1915

Benito, "Le Bassin d'Argent" February 1920

Raoul Dufy, "Croquis de Modes" February 1920

Conde Nast

The publisher of American, British, and French Vogue is Conde Nast to this day. In the early 1900s the company was investing very heavily in itself. Pierre Brissaud, Andre Marty, Charles Martin, George Barbier, and Pierre Mourgue were part of Gazette's original team and they were working on several issues together for all three editions of Vogue as well as other publications. Below are two American Vogue covers by Helen Dryden in 1922.

More to come later!